What is ergonomics of work boat ?
work boat Ergonomics (from the Greek word ergon meaning work, and nomoi meaning natural laws), is the science of refining the products to optimize them forA human use and the study of the relationship between workers and their environment, esp the equipment they use. Also called biotechnology, human engineering,
Ergonomics in Design means produces and integrates knowledge from the human sciences to match jobs, systems, products, and environments to the physical and mental abilities and limitations of people. In doing so, it seeks to improve health, safety, well-being, and performance.
Why ergonomics is important in marine industries?
The industry of shipping and ship design involves a set of requirements and business strategies that aim at reliability, efficiency, keeping up with state-of-the-art technology and creating a competitive advantage. Inattention to ergonomics (or human factors) in the process may, however, jeopardize the safety of on board operations and, in turn, implicate higher costs for the company.
In the other hand Implementation of ergonomic design in ships and work boats is very complex because the maritime work environment is very complex. Mariners work on a variety of vessels including tankers, cargo carriers, fishing vessels, military ships, barges, and offshore installations. In addition, maritime crew perform different types of work such as maintenance, production, repair, food services, manual materials handling, and drilling while working shift work. In addition, these tasks are performed in a moving environment, possibly in tight spaces, while potentially exposed to adverse environmental conditions, and living on the vessel.
Whether using ergonomics design resources, ships and work boats and their interfaces can be designed in such a way as to improve overall system performance, human productivity, and reliability, and reduce rates of human error. In fact one key to creating well-designed interfaces and workplaces is the application of ergonomics criteria. The result can be work environments that support the mariner with the efficient execution of shipboard tasks, thus reducing job-related stresses and fatigue.
Which part of ships and work boat is most critical:
Each ships and work boat has a number of workspaces – the bridge, the machinery control room, the engine room, the cargo control room, cargo holds, galley etc – each of which may have different operational criteria, but also it is a ‘home’ to those who work onboard. Furthermore, it is a floating platform which can be affected by external and internal environmental conditions such as weather, temperature, humidity, noise, vibration and ship motion (pitching, rolling and slamming), any of which can also be detrimental to the safety and performance of those who work and live onboard.
The fact that 60%∼80% of actual marine accidents are caused by human error indicates the potential risks related to a ships and work boat’s operation (Hwang and Lee, 1999; Kim et al., 2001; Yang, 2004) as well as potential damage to the marine environment.
The bridge of the ships and work boat is where a ship’s officers actually work and functions as an information situation room and a navigation control room (Kemp P. 1994). Therefore, in the case of ships and work boat design, an ergonomic bridge design should be considered to allow the officer to conduct their operations properly, be adaptable to each given situation by monitoring the sailing environment and physical function of the ships and work boat, as well as to minimize the effects of fatigue on officers due to the overburden of work (Lee et al., 2008; Ha et al., 2002).
8 important principles in designing the ergonomic bridge for ship and work boat:
For designing the bridge according to ergonomic and human factors you should consider this 8 important principles:
Principle 1: Define the Roles and Responsibilities of Bridge Personnel
For any given bridge design activity, the relative roles and responsibilities of humans and hardware/software need to be defined. Roles and responsibilities will vary depending on vessel trade, owner/operator objectives and processes, level of vessel automation and other factors. Whatever the specific contexts, the roles and responsibilities of the bridge personnel should be clearly identified.
Principle 2: Design for Human Capabilities, Limitations and Expectations
Humans and machines have, of course, very different capabilities. Humans are creative, can make decisions in the face of uncertainty, are highly mobile, learn rapidly, can generalize knowledge to novel situations, are communicative and have massive sensing and sensory processing capability.
Machines can exert great force for sustained periods, can do repetitive work flawlessly for long periods, can withstand a wide range of physical environments and do not get bored, complacent, forgetful, tired or angry.
The objective in bridge design is to take full advantage of the relative capabilities and limitations of humans and machines. In the broadest sense, humans should be involved in vessel management and planning activities and should communicate those plans and activities to the machines that perform the work (without a sense of tedium). Humans also monitor machinery and intervene when plans are not followed and perform replanning as needed when the environment or material condition of the equipment changes. In other words, humans plan and decide and machines implement the outcomes of those decisions at the bidding of the human.
Principle 3: Arrange Bridge Devices, Controls and Displays to Maximize Access
- Component Grouping to Minimize Bridge Traffic
- Arrange Displays by Task Association
- Centralize Important Information
- Optimize Arrangements
- Group Information to Support Operations
Principle 4: Design Displays Consistent with Task Requirements
- Provide External and Internal Consistency
- Provide Situation Awareness Displays
- Base Display Design on Information Requirements
- Provide Sufficiently Accurate and Precise Information
- Limit Display Complexity
- Display Actual Equipment Status
- Group Information to Support Task Performance
- Prioritize Alarms and Audible Indicators
- Avoid Nuisance Alarms
- Acknowledging Alarms
- Avoid Alarm Ambiguity
Principle 5: Design Simple, Direct and Easy to Use Inputs and Controls
- Provide Direct Human Control
- Clearly Identify Control Modes
- Operating Mode Changes are Indicated and Annunciated
- Guidance for Human Intervention in Automated Systems
- Direct and Immediate Feedback for Control Actions
- Simple Computerized Display Navigation
- Response Latency and Visibility of System Status
Principle 6: Design for Productive Performance and to Reduce Human Error
- Provide Error Prevention and Tolerance
- Consider Task Communication Needs
- Avoid Control Conflict
- Compatibility of Bridge Staffing with Operational Requirements
Principle 7: Provide Job Aids and Training
- Identify Required Knowledge, Skills and Abilities
- Identify Training Needs and Requirements
- Provide Procedures
- Provide Adequate Labels and Warnings
Principle 8: Perform Testing
- Verify Functionality
- Perform Usability Testing
Marinnor R&D and design team according to their experience in design and operation in various type of ships and work boats based on international rules and standard with User centered design approach can design and build more ergonomics ships and work boats and bridge for every needs.